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Guru Nanak Multi Academy Trust

Year 9

 

Please see the attachments at the end of this page  where you can download the Year 9 Rotation Schedule.

CB1 KEY CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY

Topic

Topic Content

1.1

 

Explain how the sub-cellular structures of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are related to their functions, including:

  1. animal cells – nucleus, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes
  2. plant cells – nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplasts, mitochondria, vacuole and ribosomes
  3. bacteria – chromosomal DNA, plasmid DNA, cell membrane, ribosomes and flagella

1.2

Describe how specialised cells are adapted to their function, including:

  1. sperm cells – acrosome, haploid nucleus, mitochondria and tail
  2. egg cells – nutrients in the cytoplasm, haploid nucleus and changes in the cell membrane after fertilisation
  3. ciliated epithelial cells

1.3

Explain how changes in microscope technology, including electron microscopy, have enabled us to see cell structures with more clarity and detail than in the past and increased our understanding of the role of sub-cellular

1.4

Demonstrate an understanding of number, size and scale, including the use of estimations and explain when they should be used

1.5

Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between quantitative units in relation to cells, including:

  1. milli (10−3)
  2. micro (10−6)
  3. nano (10−9)

d   pico (10−12)

e   calculations with numbers written in standard form

1.6

Core Practical: Investigate biological specimens using microscopes, including magnification calculations and labelled scientific drawings from observations

1.7

  Explain the mechanism of enzyme action including the active site and enzyme specificity

1.8

Explain how enzymes can be denatured due to changes in the shape of the active site

1.9

Explain the effects of temperature, substrate concentration and pH on enzyme activity

1.10

Core Practical: Investigate the effect of pH on enzyme activity

1.11

Demonstrate an understanding of rate calculations for enzyme activity

1.12

Explain the importance of enzymes as biological catalysts in the synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and their breakdown into sugars, amino acids and fatty acids and glycerol

1.15

Explain how substances are transported into and out of cells, including by diffusion, osmosis and active transport

1.16

Core Practical: Investigate osmosis in potatoes

1.17

Calculate percentage gain and loss of mass in osmosis

End of Topic assessment

 

 

CB2 CELLS AND CONTROL

Topic

Topic Content

2.1

 

Describe mitosis as part of the cell cycle, including the stages interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase and cytokinesis

2.2

Describe the importance of mitosis in growth, repair and asexual reproduction

2.3

Describe the division of a cell by mitosis as the production of two daughter cells, each with identical sets of chromosomes in the nucleus to the parent cell, and that this results in the formation of two genetically identical diploid body cells

2.4

Describe cancer as the result of changes in cells that lead to uncontrolled cell division

2.5

Describe growth in organisms, including:

  1. cell division and differentiation in animals
  2. cell division, elongation and differentiation in plants

2.6

Explain the importance of cell differentiation in the development of specialised cells

2.7

Demonstrate an understanding of the use of percentiles charts to monitor growth

2.8

Describe the function of embryonic stem cells, stem cells in animals and meristems in plants

2.9

Discuss the potential benefits and risks associated with the use of stem cells in medicine

2.13

Explain the structure and function of sensory receptors, sensory neurones, relay neurones in the CNS, motor neurones and synapses in the transmission of electrical impulses, including the axon, dendron, myelin sheath and the role of neurotransmitters

2.14

Explain the structure and function of a reflex arc including sensory, relay and motor neurones

End of Topic assessment

 

CC1 – States of matter

Topic

Topic Content

2.1

 

Describe the arrangement, movement and the relative energy of particles in each of the three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas

2.2

Recall the names used for the interconversions between the three states of matter, recognising that these are physical changes: contrasted with chemical reactions that result in chemical changes

2.3

Explain the changes in arrangement, movement and energy of particles during these interconversions

2.4

Predict the physical state of a substance under specified conditions, given suitable data

End of Topic assessment

 

CC2 – Methods of separating and purifying substances

Topic

Topic Content

2.5

 

Explain the difference between the use of ‘pure’ in chemistry compared with its everyday use and the differences in chemistry between a pure substance and a mixture

2.6

Interpret melting point data to distinguish between pure substances which have a sharp melting point and mixtures which melt over a range of temperatures

2.7

Explain the experimental techniques for separation of mixtures by:

  1. simple distillation
  2. fractional
  3. distillation
  4. filtration
  5. crystallisation

f     paper chromatography

2.8

Describe an appropriate experimental technique to separate a mixture, knowing the properties of the components of the mixture

2.9

Describe paper chromatography as the separation of mixtures of soluble substances by running a solvent (mobile phase) through the mixture on the paper (the paper contains the stationary phase), which causes the substances to move at different rates over the paper

2.10

Interpret a paper chromatogram:

  1. to distinguish between pure and impure substances
  2. to identify substances by comparison with known substances
  3.  to identify substances by calculation and use of Rf values

2.11

Core Practical: Investigate the composition of inks using simple distillation and paper chromatography

2.12

Describe how:

  1. waste and ground water can be made potable, including the need for sedimentation, filtration and chlorination
  2. sea water can be made potable by using distillation
  3. water used in analysis must not contain any dissolved salts

End of Topic assessment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CC3 - Atomic Structure

Topic

Topic Content

1.1

 

Describe how the Dalton model of an atom has changed over time because of the discovery of subatomic particles

1.2

Describe the structure of an atom as a nucleus containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons in shells

1.3

Recall the relative charge and relative mass of:

a   a proton

b   a neutron

c   an electron

1.4

Explain why atoms contain equal numbers of protons and electrons

1.5

Describe the nucleus of an atom as very small compared to the overall size of the atom

1.6

Recall that most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus

1.7

Recall the meaning of the term mass number of an atom

1.8

Describe atoms of a given element as having the same number of protons in the nucleus and that this number is unique to that element

1.9

Describe atoms of a given element as having the same number of protons in the nucleus and that this number is unique to that element

1.10

Calculate the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms given the atomic number and mass number

1.11

Explain how the existence of isotopes results in relative atomic masses of some elements not being whole numbers

1.12

Calculate the relative atomic mass of an element from the relative masses and abundances of its isotopes

End of Topic assessment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CC4 - The Period Table

Topic

Topic Content

1.13

 

Describe how Mendeleev arranged the elements, known at that time, in a periodic table by using properties of these elements and their compounds

1.14

Describe how Mendeleev used his table to predict the existence and properties of some elements not then discovered

1.15

Explain that Mendeleev thought he had arranged elements in order of increasing relative atomic mass but this was not always true because of the relative abundance of isotopes of some pairs of elements in the periodic table

1.16

Explain the meaning of atomic number of an element in terms of position in the periodic table and number of protons in the nucleus

1.17

Describe that in the periodic table

  1. elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, in rows called periods
  2. elements with similar properties are placed in the same     vertical columns called groups

1.18

Identify elements as metals or non-metals according to their position in the periodic table, explaining this division in terms of the atomic structures of the elements

1.19

Predict the electronic configurations of the first 20 elements in the periodic table as diagrams and in the form, for example 2.8.1

1.20

Explain how the electronic configuration of an element is related to its position in the periodic table

End of Topic assessment